In this 2014 talk, one of the designers of the original ARM processor, Sophie Wilson, gives an overview of the history of processors and what to expect in future.
The presentation covers in layman’s terms topics like Moore’s law (obviously), pipelining, parallelism, power consumption, heat dissipation, processor specialization and cost of production among other things. As explained, all those aspects are facing difficult challenges that are likely to shape the future of microprocessors, which in turns impacts both hardware and software engineers.
A talk by Scott Meyers on CPU cache: CPU Caches and Why You Care. Although the recording could be much better to say the least, the talk is very worth watching, starting with very simple considerations and getting pretty far while staying crystal clear. The slides can be found here.
Update: the Scott Meyers talk referenced in the above link has been put behind a paywall. However he gave his talk again in 2014 at a conference, and the video is available. The new talk contains a few differences, and all in all I find it a bit harder to follow and a bit less entertaining (for some reason, the jokes don’t work as well as they did previously), but the recording quality is also much better.